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Oracle 10g Virtual Private Database

Virtual Private Database (VPD) was first introduced in Oracle8i.  It set a new standard in database security, being built into the database server, instead of each application accessing the data.  Security is no longer bypassed when a user accesses the database with an ad hoc query tool or a new application.  Virtual Private Database is a key enabling technology for organizations building hosted, web-based applications that expose mission-critical resources to customers.

Virtual Private Database Overview

Virtual Private Database enables the database to perform query modification based on a security policy you have defined in a package. A security policy is a restriction associated with a table or view. 

When a user directly or indirectly accesses a table or view associated with a VPD security policy, the server dynamically modifies the user’s SQL statement.  The modification is based on a where condition (a predicate) returned by a function which implements the security policy.  The database modifies the statement dynamically and is transparent to the user.

Data access via Virtual Private Database will perform the following five steps:

  1. User sends SQL to the database server.

  2. The associated table triggers a pre-defined security policy.

  3. The security policy returns a predicate.

  4. The SQL statement is modified according to the security policy.

  5. Secured data returns to user.

Figure 15.1 Virtual Private Database Overview

In Oracle8i, the Virtual Private Database provided the following key features:

  • Fine-grained Access Control

  • Application Context

  • Row Level Security

  • VPD support for table and view

Oracle9i expanded the Virtual Private Database features as follows:

  • Oracle Policy Manager

  • Partitioned fine-grained access control

  • Global application context

  • VPD support for synonyms

Oracle 10g makes the following three major enhancements in Virtual Private Database:

Get the complete story:

The above text is an excerpt from "Oracle Database 10g New Features: Reference for Advanced Tuning and Administration", by Rampant TechPress.  Written by top Oracle experts, this book has a complete online code deport with ready to use scripts. 

To get the code instantly, click here:

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