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Introduction to Oracle Auditing

Along with the statement, the other information such as timestamp, client machine name, etc., is also recorded. This information alone can satisfy most of the regulations. However, the exact rows that were selected are not recorded. This is done by another feature, called Fine Grained Auditing (FGA).

Always enable auditing for sensitive tables to identify accesses. This alone satisfies most of the HIPAA requirements.

Data Change Auditing

The regular auditing features of Oracle record that the user has updated some rows of a table, but not which particular rows, and more importantly, what the value was before the change. HIPAA compliance requires that the sensitive data be audited for changes, and that means recording the pre-change value as well as the post-change one. Some other security and auditing policies, such as the Safe Harbor Law, may also mandate that.

The usual method of auditing changed data is to use triggers on the tables. A trigger is a piece of code that executes when a certain event associated with that trigger occurs. For instance, a trigger of type After Update Row may be defined on a table. In that trigger, the code may capture the old value before the change, the new value after the change, and insert both values into a table used to capture this type of audit information. 

In addition to the old and new data, several other important pieces of information can also be captured and recorded, such as the timestamp, the client machine, etc. In Chapter 9, we will explore how to create these

The above text is an excerpt from:

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