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Chapter 4 Oracle Instance Design

signature for the system.  By signature, we mean trend lines or spikes in user activity.  For example, we might see high user activity every Wednesday afternoon at 1:00 PM. Using this user audit table, we can quickly identify these user signatures, and adjust Oracle in order to accommodate these changes and end-user usage.

Related DDL, system errors, and user activity can easily be captured using the system level triggers.  However, it is clear that system level triggers are not as sophisticated as they might be, and Oracle indicates that efforts are underway to enhance system level trigger functionality with the introduction of Oracle10i in 2003.

However, the judicious use of the system log on and system log off triggers can provide a very easy and reliable tracking mechanism for Oracle user activity.  For the Oracle administrator who is committed to tracking user activity over long-term periods, the user audit table can provide a wealth of interesting user information, including user usage signatures, aggregated both by the hour of the day and the day of the week.

Designing Oracle Failover Options

There are four levels of failover technology within the Oracle software.  Each failover option has it's own costs, advantages and disadvantages.

Figure 4.3 –Oracle failover options

Oracle9i RAC - This is the most power and complex of the failover solutions and offers continuous availability using Transparent Application Failover (TAF). 

Oracle Streams - This is a high-speed replication solution that takes SQL directly from the log_buffer RAM area and replicates transactions to a remote database.  During a server crash, transactions can be quickly redirected to the replicated system.

  • Oracle DataGuard - This is a free option with Oracle Enterprise Edition and provides for a automated standby database.  Upon server failure, a series of database procedures synchronizes the standby database and opens it to accept connections. Oracle DataGuard is free with Enterprise Edition.

  • Oracle Standby Database - This is not an Oracle product, and it is a procedure used prior to Oracle Data Guard to create a standby database.  Oracle7 introduced mechanisms that allow a standby database to be constantly in recovery mode and to be refreshed from Oracle’s archived redo logs. In case of failure, the

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